杨昌儒 董强:创设中黄炎子孙民共和国民族学的言辞连串

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作者简介:王延中,山东东平人,社会学博士,中国社会科学院民族学与人类学研究所所长、研究员,中国民族学学会执行会长。北京 100081

On the Way to Theoretical Nursing:Stages and Milestones

作者简介:杨昌儒,男,布依族,贵州平塘人,贵州民族大学教授(贵州 贵阳 550025);董强,男,汉族,山东泗水人,法学博士,贵州民族大学副教授(贵州 贵阳 550025)。

内容提要:在近期对民族地区经济社会发展现状实地调查的基础上,结合民族学学术讨论与学科建设实际,作者提出民族理论研究的八大问题,包括民族关系与民族团结、中华民族共同体建设、民族区域自治制度的发展与完善、发展民族文化与建设中华文化共有精神家园、提升民族地区内在发展动力、注意民族政策的协调性、加强民族学学科与学术话语体系建设、建设民族学新型智库等。民族学必须围绕党和国家中心工作加强重大理论与应用对策研究,适时提出符合实际和现实需要的话语体系和学术概念,建立包容开放的民族理论体系,指导民族政策的适时调整,为解决新时期的民族问题做出更大的贡献。

理论护理之路:阶段与里程碑

Despite the barriers against theoretical thinking and theorizing identified in the previous chapter, nurses, in caring for human beings in an orderly and organized way, have always been involved in some form of theorizing. Concepts of care, comfort, communication, protection, healing, and health, among others, were used to guide clinical practice before they were labeled as concepts and before they were linked together to form nursing theories. However, between 1950 and 1980, a process of serious labeling and a more systematic communication of concepts and theories occurred. This process continues to enrich the discipline of nursing.

尽管在上一章中提到的理论思考和理论化障碍存在障碍,护士在有序和有组织地照顾人类方面一直参与某种形式的理论研究。护理,舒适,沟通,保护,康复和健康等概念被用于指导临床实践,然后才将它们标记为概念,并且在将它们连接在一起形成护理理论之前。然而,在1950年到1980年之间,发生了一个严肃的标签和更系统的概念和理论交流的过程。这个过程继续丰富护理学科。

First attempts in theoretical nursing were made by Florence Nightingale in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to describe nursing focus and action in the Crimean War.Nightingale was prompted to articulate her ideas in numerous publications, with different goals. Among these goals were gaining support for a national need for nurses, achieving acceptance for the development of educational programs for nurses, and exposing the unhealthy environmental conditions that were endured by English soldiers during wars.

弗洛伦斯·南丁格尔于19世纪末和20世纪初首次尝试进行理论护理,描述了克里米亚战争中的护理重点和行动。南丁格尔被促使在众多出版物中阐述她的观点,并提出不同的目标。这些目标之一是获得对国家对护士的需求的支持,为护士的教育计划的发展获得接受,并暴露出战争期间英国士兵忍受的不健康的环境条件。

Subsequent attempts in theorizing were published by American nurse educators in the mid- 1950s, prompted by the need to justify different educational levels for nurses and the need to develop curricula for each of the educational levels in nursing. To differentiate curricula, and to enhance the quality of education in each curriculum, a few pioneer nurses combined their clinical expertise with forward vision to answer such questions as “What are nursing goals?” and “What ought to be the aims of nursing?” These early theorists were aware that by developing programs that represented a nursing perspective, they would help nursing students—that is, future clinicians—to focus on nursing phenomena and problems rather than on medical phenomena and problems. Groups were formed in different parts of the United States (and subsequently or simultaneously in other parts of the world) and committees were formed to discuss the nature of nursing, the nature of nurses’ work, and the unique aspects of nursing. The goals of these early efforts were also focused on differentiating nursing from other health science disciplines. These dialogues went further to explore the nature of nursing knowledge.

随后的理论化尝试由美国护士教育工作者在20世纪50年代中期发表,需要证明不同的护士教育水平是合理的,并且需要为护理中的每个教育级别制定课程。为了区分课程设置,并提高每门课程的教育质量,一些先驱护士将其临床专业知识与前瞻性视野结合起来,回答诸如“什么是护理目标?”和“护理目标应该是什么?”等问题。这些早期理论家意识到,通过开发代表护理观点的计划,他们将帮助护理学生(即未来的临床医生)专注于护理现象和问题,而不是医疗现象和问题。在美国的不同地区(随后或同时在世界其他地方)成立了小组,并成立了委员会来讨论护理的性质,护士工作的性质以及护理的独特方面。这些早期工作的目标还集中在将护理与其他健康科学学科区分开来。这些对话进一步探讨了护理知识的性质。

Perhaps the best way to consider the history of nursing theory and to analyze nurses’ current interest in theory in perspective is to consider dominant themes in the different stages of the development of nursing knowledge (see discussion on Nursing Perspective in Chapter 6). The implicit assumption here is that the themes discussed in the literature are indicative and representative of what members of the discipline were interested in at different times during the process of its development. In addition to delineating these themes, an analysis of the theory-literature provides us with specific milestones that may have helped in the development of theoretical nursing. Both approaches provide insights into how nursing evolved into its current status.

也许考虑护理理论历史和分析护士当前对理论的兴趣的最好方法是在护理知识发展的不同阶段考虑主导主题(参见第6章的护理观点讨论)。这里隐含的假设是,文献中讨论的主题是指示性的,并代表了该学科在其发展过程中不同时期对哪些成员感兴趣。除了描述这些主题外,对理论文献的分析为我们提供了可能有助于理论护理发展的具体里程碑。这两种方法都提供了护理如何演变成其当前状态的见解。

In this chapter, the themes are articulated as stages that have influenced progress in knowledge development. Stages are complemented by milestones, which characterize the turning points for moving from one stage to the next. These stages and milestones helped achieve the current level of progress in the discipline.

在本章中,主题被阐述为影响知识发展进程的阶段。阶段是由里程碑来补充的,这些里程碑描述了从一个阶段转移到另一个阶段的转折点。这些阶段和里程碑有助于实现本学科目前的进步水平。

内容提要:中国民族学要构建自己的话语体系,应该坚持从中国本土出发,从中国思想史和民族学学说史中寻找学科根基;民族学要投身现实社会,直面现实问题,不仅要注意理论上回答民族、民族问题“是什么”,更要注意结合现实回答民族、民族问题是“如何存在”“为什么存在”。还必须紧密结合当代民族、民族问题存在、发展的现实,回答现实中民族、民族问题是“如何发展”“如何解决”;应着力打造易于为国际社会所理解和接受的学术话语体系,在国际讲坛上,不仅是能发声,还要奏出中华民族的时代最强音。

Based on a recent field survey of economic and social development of ethnic regions and academic discussion and discipline construction of ethnology,the writer discusses eight major issues in ethnic theoretical research including ethnic relation and national unity,the construction of the Chinese nation community,the development and perfection of regional ethnic autonomy system,developing ethnic culture and building a spiritual homeland of the Chinese culture,uplifting internal development driving force of ethnic regions,paying attention to the coordination of ethnic policies,strengthening the construction of discipline and academic discourse system of ethnology,and building a new think tank of ethnology.The research of important theories and application strategy of ethnology should be carried out according to the central work of the party and the state.The study of ethnology should be aimed at developing a discourse system and academic concept in line with the actual and practical needs,establishing an inclusive and open ethnic theoretical system,guiding the adjustment of ethnic policies and making greater contributions to resolving ethnic issues in the new era.

STAGES IN NURSING PROGRESS

To develop the discourse system for Chinese ethnology,we should start based on Chinese local situations,and search for academic roots in Chinese ideology and ethnology history.It is argued that the researchers of ethnology must face social problems,ponder over theories and practice,and take action to develop the discourse system concerned in order to make their voices heard on the international stage.

关 键 词:民族理论/话语体系/民族政策/学科建设 ethnic theory/discourse system/ethnic policy/discipline construction

护理进程中的阶段

Since the time of the Crimean War, nursing has gone through many stages in its search for a professional identity and in defining its domain. It is interesting to note that our analysis and evaluation of nursing’s theoretical thought, the patriarchal societies we live in, and the view and status accorded nurses and nursing may make it appear as if each of these stages was a deviation from the goal of establishing the discipline of nursing. However, each of these stages has indeed sharpened and clarified the dimensions needed for the establishment of the scientific aspects of the discipline, promoting or leading to a scholarly evolution of the nursing discipline. Each stage has helped nurses come closer to identifying the domain of nursing, defining its mission, and defining its theoretical base. Progress in the development of theoretical nursing is definable in terms of six stages: practice, education and administration, research, theory, philosophy, and integration.

自克里米亚战争以来,护理在寻找职业身份和定义其领域方面经历了许多阶段。值得注意的是,我们对护理理论思想,我们所生活的父权社会以及护士和护理人员的观点和地位的分析和评估可能会使得看起来每个阶段都偏离了建立护理学科。然而,这些阶段中的每个阶段的确已经确立和澄清了建立该学科科学方面所需要的维度,促进或导致了护理学科的学术演变。每个阶段都帮助护士更接近确定护理领域,确定其使命,并确定其理论基础。

关 键 词:中国民族学/话语体系/构建/Chinese ethnology/discourse system/construction

民族学自19世纪末20世纪初进入中国以来,在一个多世纪的发展历程中,虽然历经风雨,但总体上没有中断过;关注重点与研究范围虽不断调整,但与时代主题总是密切相关。在我国这样一个多民族国家中,民族现象的复杂性、民族问题的重要性、民族研究的时代性,为民族学研究提供了丰沃的土壤,民族学人适应时代呼唤,响应国家需要,在调查研究、人才培养、学科建设、政策咨询、学术交流等领域辛勤耕耘,产出了很多有影响的重大成果,为发展我国哲学社会科学事业做出了很大贡献。民族学已经成为最具中国特色的哲学社会科学专业领域之一,也是习近平总书记在2016年5月17日哲学社会科学座谈会讲话中提出大力发展的重要学科之一。

Stage of Practice

习近平总书记于2016年5月17日在哲学社会科学工作座谈会上发表了重要讲话,从“坚持和发展中国特色社会主义必须高度重视哲学社会科学”“坚持马克思主义在我国哲学社会科学领域的指导地位”“加快构建中国特色哲学社会科学”“加强和改善党对哲学社会科学工作的领导”等四个方面,深刻回答了事关我国哲学社会科学长远发展的一系列根本性问题,是指导哲学社会科学工作的纲领性文献。在这个背景下讨论中国民族学的发展问题,具有十分重要的意义。

全球化时代民族问题出现许多新现象,我国在现代化进程中民族地区和少数民族的同步发展问题(比如中央提出与全国一道全面建成小康社会)更加突出。时代对民族学提出的任务依然重大,但我们的学科的应对明显不力。面对哲学社会科学各学科迅速发展的新局面,特别是与迅猛发展的经济学、法学、国际问题研究等学科相比,民族学领域曾经的辉煌逐渐暗淡;与文史哲等传统基础学科相比,民族学的基础研究似乎更加边缘化;与其他学科理论与方法取向的一般性相比,民族学似乎变得越来越特殊。当前民族研究领域面临着许多新问题,如何建立更加适应形势任务与学科发展需要的民族学新型学科体系、学术体系、话语体系十分重要。近一个时期以来,通过对民族地区经济社会发展现状的大规模实地调查,对民族地区面临的问题有了一些认识。近年来民族学理论热点讨论很是热烈甚至热闹,很多内容都涉及学术研究方向与学科建设。根据调查观察与思考,对当前民族学研究领域一些问题提出一些不成熟的想法。

实践阶段

The Western version of nursing as an occupation dates from the late 19th century and the early 20th century, a product of the Crimean War. Because of the need to care for wounded soldiers, Florence Nightingale organized a group of women to deliver care under her supervision and that of the war surgeons. Nightingale focused on hygiene as her goal and environmental changes as the means to achieve that goal.

作为职业的西方护理版本的历史可追溯到19世纪末和20世纪初,是克里米亚战争的产物。由于需要照顾受伤的士兵,弗洛伦斯·南丁格尔组织了一群妇女在她的监督下和战争外科医生那里提供护理。南丁格尔以卫生为目标,以环境变化为手段实现这一目标。

The Eastern version of the beginning of nursing gives credit to Rufaida Bent Saad al-Aslamiya (also referred to as Koaiba Bent Saad), who accompanied the prophet Mohammed in his Islamic wars. She, too, organized a group of women and focused on hygiene and environment in caring for the wounded. She established special moving tents to attend to the sick, the wounded, and the disabled. She modeled first aid, emergency care, and long-term healing and caring. She cared for patients and trained women in the arts of first aid and nursing (Fangary, 1980; S.H. Hussein, personal communication, 1990). Like Nightingale, al-Aslamiya established the first school of nursing in the Muslim world. In addition, she conceptualized a code of ethics for nurses and inspired young women to be educated (Jan, 1996). Like Nightingale, her role in nursing did not end with the war. al-Asalmiya continued to advocate for health care, preventive care, and health education.

开始护理的东方版本赋予Rufaida Bent Saad al-Aslamiya(也称为Koaiba Bent Saad),他在伊斯兰战争中陪伴先知穆罕默德。她也组织了一批妇女,专注于照顾伤员的卫生和环境。她建立了特殊的移动帐篷来照顾病人,伤员和残疾人。她模拟了急救,紧急护理和长期治疗和护理。她关心病人并训练妇女进行急救和护理(Fangary,1980; SH Hussein,个人通讯,1990)。像南丁格尔一样,al-Aslamiya在穆斯林世界建立了第一所护理学校。此外,她还为护士和启发性年轻女性进行了伦理规范概念教育(1996年1月)。像南丁格尔一样,她在护理中的角色并没有随着战争而结束。al-Asalmiya继续倡导保健,预防保健和健康教育。

Hussein (1981) described al-Aslamiya’s devotion to nursing and her success in establishing new rules and traditions for quality nursing care as precursors to modern nursing in the Middle East. In both Eastern and Western versions of the beginnings of nursing, a woman saw the need for organizing other women to care for the wounded in wars; in both, they provided emergency care as well as long-term care. They both focused on caring, healing, promoting healthy environments, and on training other nurses. They both were driven by moral commitments to alleviate suffering and enhance healing.

Hussein(1981)描述了al-Aslamiya对护理的热爱和她在建立新的规则和优质护理传统方面的成功,这些规则和传统是中东现代护理的先驱。在护理开始的东西方版本中,一名妇女认为有必要组织其他女性照顾战争中的伤员; 在这两方面,他们都提供紧急护理和长期护理。他们都专注于关心,康复,促进健康环境,并培训其他护士。他们都受到道德承诺的驱使,以减轻痛苦和加强治疗。

Therefore, during this stage, the mission of nursing was defined as providing care and comfort to enhance healing and a sense of well-being, and to create a healthy environment that helps decrease suffering and deterioration. Nurses defined their domain to include the patient and the environment in which the care is offered. Both Nightingale and al-Aslamiya created and monitored the environment in which the care was being given. The stage of practice gave nursing its raison d’être, its focus, and its mission. Theoretical writings by Nightingale (1946) describing the care goals and processes are testimony to the potential for nurses to articulate practice activities theoretically. These writings also point to the potential for nursing as a field of practice to be articulated theoretically.

因此,在这个阶段,护理的使命被定义为提供护理和舒适,以增强康复和幸福感,并创造一个有助于减少痛苦和恶化的健康环境。护士将其领域定义为包括患者和提供护理的环境。Nightingale和al-Aslamiya都创建并监测了护理的环境。实践阶段赋予护理其存在的理由,其焦点和使命。Nightingale(1946)的描述护理目标和过程的理论着作证明了护士从理论上阐述实践活动的潜力。这些着作也指出护理作为一个实践领域的可能性在理论上得到阐述。

一、中国民族学应该从历史中寻找学科根基,植根于中国本土研究

Stage of Education and Administration

习近平总书记指出:哲学社会科学的现实形态,是古往今来各种知识、观念、理论、方法等融通生成的结果。我们要善于融通古今中外各种资源,特别是要把握好三方面资源。一是马克思主义的资源;二是中华优秀传统文化的资源;三是国外哲学社会科学的资源。[澳门威斯尼斯人娱乐网,1]因此,中国民族学应当从历史中寻找学科根基。

教育和行政阶段

From that early focus on practice and the concomitant traditions of apprenticeship and service, there was a shift to questions related to training programs and nursing curricula. The “how to” of practice eventually was translated into what curriculum to develop to support different levels of nursing education and how to teach it. Almost three decades were spent experimenting with different curricula, ways of preparing teachers, modes of educating administrators for schools of nursing and for service, and ways of preparing nurse practitioners. During this stage, the focus was on the development of functional roles for nurses. The dominant themes of this stage evolved from the educational and administrative roles of nurses.

从早期对实践的重视以及伴随的学徒和服务传统出发,转向了与培训计划和护理课程有关的问题。实践的“如何”最终被转化为发展的课程,以支持不同层次的护理教育以及如何教授它。将近三十年的时间花在尝试不同的课程,准备教师的方式,为护理和服务学校教育管理人员的方式,以及准备执业护士的方式。在这个阶段,重点是护士职能角色的发展。这个阶段的主要主题是从护士的教育和行政角色演变而来的。

The significance of this stage in the theoretical development of the discipline lies in the impetus it provided nurses to ask questions related to the domain of nursing. In developing curricula geared toward preparing nurses for different educational levels, nurses asked: What is nursing? How different is nursing care as provided by a diploma graduate, an associate-degree graduate, a bachelor of science graduate, or a master’s-degree graduate? These questions prompted nurses to articulate the core of nursing practice in more theoretical terms (Henderson, 1966). In a curious way, it is during this stage that the theoretical ideas of the pioneering American nurse theorists were born. A focus on teaching and education, therefore, may have paved the way for the further development of theoretical nursing.

这一阶段在该学科理论发展中的重要意义在于它提供了护士向护理领域提出问题的动力。在制定面向不同教育程度护士的课程时,护士问:什么是护理?由文凭毕业生,副学士毕业生,理学学士学位或硕士学位毕业生提供的护理服务有多不同?这些问题促使护士用更多的理论术语来阐明护理实践的核心(Henderson,1966)。奇怪的是,正是在这个阶段,美国护士先驱理论家的理论观念诞生了。因此,重视教学和教育可能为理论护理的进一步发展铺平道路。

回顾历史应当从两个维度着手,一是中国思想史,二是民族学学说史。

Stage of Research

从中国思想史的角度看,中国古代有关于民族的观念而缺乏明确的国家观念和国家边界,各王朝所持有的是天下观。根据西南大学张文教授的研究成果,天下观起源于先秦时期,《诗·小雅·北山》所载“溥天之下,莫非王土”就是天下观的表达。《礼记·王制篇》中在谈到天下五方之民,间接地论述了天下的概念,其文曰:“中国戎夷,五方之民,皆有性也,不可推移。东方曰夷,被发文身,有不火食者矣;南方曰蛮,雕题交趾,有不火食者矣;西方曰戎,被发衣皮,有不粒食者矣;北方曰狄,衣羽毛穴居,有不粒食者矣。中国夷蛮戎狄皆有安居,和味宜服,利用备器;五方之民,言语不通,嗜欲不同。”文中所谈虽只及五方之民,实际是暗示了天下的四至:东方夷人,被发文身,是指滨海水居者;西方戎人,被发衣皮,是指西方的游牧者;北方狄人,衣羽毛穴居,是指游猎者;南方蛮人,雕题交趾,也指滨海水居者。此四方即天下的四至。即,西到葱岭,东抵大海,北至草原大漠,南及海滨,这便是古人心目中的天下四方。[2]

研究阶段

The stage of research evolved through a series of events overlapping with the stages of practice and education. As Gortner (2000) indicated, during the 1920s, case studies were formulated as teaching tools, but they also were used as an impetus for standardization. Systematic evaluation of these cases triggered the need for graduate education during the post-Depression years in the United States. The war years required data collection and analysis, necessitating the establishment of the Division of Nursing Resources as part of the U.S. Public Health Services in 1948. The beginnings of a research enterprise were born. In the 1970s, commissions and councils of nurse researchers were established. Nurses increasingly were receiving graduate degrees in other disciplines, funds for National Research Service awards were established, and nursing research journals were initiated.

研究阶段是通过一系列与实践和教育阶段重叠的事件演变而来的。Gortner(2000)指出,在20世纪20年代,案例研究被制定为教学工具,但它们也被用作标准化的动力。对这些案例的系统评估引发了美国大萧条后的研究生教育需求。战争年代需要数据收集和分析,因此需要在1948年成立美国公共卫生服务部门,成立护理资源部门。一个研究企业的诞生就此诞生。在20世纪70年代,护士研究员委员会和理事会成立。护士越来越多地在其他学科获得研究生学位,国家研究服务奖的资金已经建立。

The momentum in nursing in education, curriculum development, teaching and learning strategies, and in administration also led educators to pursue research. Experts in nursing curricula recognized that without research and a systematic inquiry into, for example, the different teaching/learning modalities and the teaching/learning milieu on outcomes, the education of nurses could not be improved. Therefore, the research interest emerged from and focused on questions related to educational and evaluative processes. The scholarship in teaching dominated the early research enterprise.

护理在教育,课程开发,教学和学习策略以及管理方面的势头也导致教育工作者进行研究。护理课程专家认识到,如果没有研究和系统研究不同的教学/学习方式和教学/学习环境对成果的影响,护士教育就无法得到改善。因此,研究兴趣从教育和评估过程中出现并集中于问题。教学奖学金主导着早期的研究型企业。

How to teach, how to administer, how to lead, and which strategies would be more effective in teaching and administering were questions that led to the development and expansion of nursing research (Gortner and Nahm, 1977). The first nursing research journal—entitled Nursing Research— in the world was established in 1952, in the United States, and the Southern Regional Educational Board (SREB) and the Western Council for Higher Education in Nursing (WCHEN) were founded in the mid-1950s and mid-1960s, respectively. Their objectives called for improving nursing education, enhancing nursing research productivity, and raising the quality of research. The journal and the meetings of the SREB and WCHEN helped nursing develop its scientific norms—that “set of cultural values and mores governing the activities termed scientific” (Merton, 1973, p. 270).

如何教,如何管理,如何领导以及哪些策略在教学和管理方面更有效是导致护理研究发展和扩展的问题(Gortner and Nahm,1977)。1952年,美国成立了第一份名为“护理研究”的护理研究杂志,南美地区教育委员会(SREB)和西方护理高等教育委员会(WCHEN)成立于1952年中。 20世纪50年代和60年代中期。他们的目标要求改善护理教育,提高护理研究的生产率,提高研究质量。该期刊和SREB和WCHEN的会议帮助护理人员发展其科学规范,即“一套文化价值观和管理科学活动的文化”(默顿,1973年,第270页)。

Criteria for reviewing scientific papers were established, on the basis of the assumption that scientific inquiry must be judged by peers. Therefore, nurse researchers began to abide by Merton’s norm of universalism, the impersonal evaluation of a research product by some objective criteria (Merton, 1973, p. 270). Universities also held the same expectations for nursing faculty that they held for other faculty; specifically, members of faculty in schools of nursing were required to develop their ideas and communicate them in the scientific arena through publications in refereed journals and scholarly presentations in meetings. Therefore, when seen in the context of science, the “publish or perish” dogma was not unrealistic but was rather another norm governing nursing science. Nurses were now involved in that communality—the sharing of ideas—and their research was subjected to the scrutiny of their peers and anonymous critics (Gortner, 1980; Merton, 1973).

科学论文的评审标准建立在科学探索必须由同行评判的基础上。因此,护士研究人员开始遵守默顿的普遍主义规范,即通过客观标准对研究产品进行客观评价(默顿,1973年,第270页)。大学也对他们为其他教师担任的护理教师抱有同样的期望; 具体而言,护理学院的教师成员需要发表自己的想法,并通过在学术期刊上发表的文章和在学术会议上的学术演讲在科学领域进行交流。因此,从科学的角度来看,“出版或消亡”教条并非不现实,而是管理护理科学的另一个规范。

Nursing’s initial attempts at introducing ideas and sharing research results were met with severe and, at times, devastating criticisms from other nursing colleagues. (Those who participated in early research conferences may remember the lengthy and severe research critiques that traumatized researchers and audience alike. These authors of these critiques may not have considered the stage of nursing research development.) As a result, and in addition to universality and communality, two other norms evolved: objectivity and detached scrutiny. Objective criteria for research evaluation, which were identified and shared, provided a turning point—a scholarly medium for research refinement and further development (Leininger, 1968).

护理在介绍想法和分享研究成果方面的初步尝试遭到了其他护理同事严重的,有时甚至是毁灭性的批评。(那些参加过早期研究会议的人可能会记得长时间和严峻的研究批评,这些研究批评让研究人员和观众都受到了创伤。这些批评的作者可能没有考虑过护理研究的发展阶段。)因此,除了普遍性和共同性,另外两个规范演变:客观性和独立审查。研究评估的客观标准经过了确认和共享,为研究细化和进一步发展提供了一个转折点(Leininger,1968)。

The stage of research development made major contributions to contemporary scholarly nursing. It was also the stage in which tools of science left a major mark on curricula through the new offerings of research classes and statistics courses and through the several publications in which major research tools and instruments were compiled and combined.

研究发展阶段对当代的学术护理做出了重大贡献。科学工具通过研究课程和统计课程的新产品以及通过编写和结合主要研究工具和工具的若干出版物在课程中留下重要标记的阶段。

These stages have a global parallel. Progress in knowledge development is also influenced by international levels of education. Some countries, such as Australia and Germany, moved nursing education from hospital training to university training in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. Subsequently, there has been a steady increase in philosophies and theoretical dialogues, as well as a cumulative trajectory of research productivity.

这些阶段是全球平行的。国际教育水平也影响着知识发展的进展。一些国家,如澳大利亚和德国,分别在20世纪80年代和90年代将护理教育从医院培训转向大学培训。随后,哲学和理论对话以及研究生产力的累积轨迹不断增加。

These, then, were the beginnings of nursing inquiry and science. During this stage, as in other sciences, researchers emphasized scientific syntax—the process rather than the content of research (Kuhn, 1970). The binding frameworks or depositories of collected facts were still lacking. Nevertheless, the syntax of the discipline had been formulated.

中华大地的自然疆域是一个相对封闭的地理单元,其中居住着不同的民族,在相对封闭的地理环境制约下形成向心力。其中,华夏民族由于占据了这个地理单元的核心位置,大河流域滋养了华夏文化并影响着周边其他民族,因此自然成为核心。先秦时期起源的天下观就是华夏民族对自然疆域的看法,这一看法被历代入主中原以正统自居的王朝普遍接受。按照天下观的思想,这一自然疆域内的所有土地都是天子的领地,所有人民都是天子的臣民。《尚书·皋陶谟》说大禹“弼成五服,至于五千”。《左传》昭公十三年,子产曰:“卑而贵重者,甸服也。”《国语·周语上》记祭公谋父曰:“夫先王之制:邦内‘甸服’;邦外‘侯服’;侯卫‘宾服’;蛮夷‘要服’;戎狄‘荒服’。‘甸服’者祭,‘侯服’者祀,‘宾服’者享,‘要服’者贡,‘荒服’者王。日祭、月祀、时享、岁贡、终王。”《荀子》卷十二说:“故诸夏之国同服同仪,蛮夷戎狄之国同服不同制。封内甸服,封外侯服,侯卫宾服,蛮夷要服,戎狄荒服。甸服者祭,侯服者祀,宾服者享,要服者贡,荒服者终王。”《国语·周语中》:“昔我先王之有天下也,规方千里以为甸服,以供上帝、山川、百神之祀,以备百姓兆民之用,以待不庭不虞之患。其余以均分公侯伯子男,使各有宁宇。”

那么,这些就是护理调查和科学的开始。在这个阶段,与其他科学一样,研究者强调科学语法

过程而不是研究内容(Kuhn,1970)。收集到的事实的约束框架或存储仍然缺乏。尽管如此,该学科的语法已经制定。

可见,所谓的五服,实质是指以王城所在地为中心、从内到外可以划分为三个大圈:内圈是甸服,地方千里,是王畿之地;中圈在内圈之外,包括侯服和绥服,在甸服以外四面各一千里,是大小诸侯所在地,仍属于“中国”的范围,其使命是推广中原文化,保卫中央和诸侯国的安全;外圈在最外边,包括要服和荒服,在绥服以外四面各一千里,这里是“蛮”“夷”“戎”“狄”外族人居住的地方,也是中国流放罪人之处。这种内、中、外三大圈的分布格局,折射出中原地区与四夷之间分布态势。

Stage of Theory

在中国古代数千年的发展史上,当边疆政权弱于中原王朝时,则以羁縻、藩属等名义与中原王朝形成间接归属或名义上的归属;而当这些政权比较强大时,则往往与中原王朝发生战争,两者的军事控制线就有了边界的意义。但是,这仍是发生在中华自然疆域内的事情,在理论上和法理上都与近代国家之间的边界有着本质上的区别。

理论阶段

Eventually, the fundamental questions about the essence of nursing—its mission and its goals—began to surface in a more organized way. An incisive group of leaders, nurses who believed that theory should guide the practice of nursing, wrote about the need for theory, the nature of nursing theory, philosophers’ views of theory, and how nursing theory ought to be shaped. Although the conceptual schemata of nurse theorists for the discipline of nursing appeared during the education and administration stages of the discipline, it was not until the emergence of the stage of theory that they were taken seriously (Nursing Theory Think Tank, 1979).

最终,关于护理本质的基本问题 - 其使命和目标 - 开始以更有条理的方式展现。一群尖锐的领导者,护士认为理论应该指导护理实践,他写到理论的需要,护理理论的本质,哲学家的理论观点以及如何塑造护理理论。虽然护理学理论家在护理学科的概念图式出现在学科的教育和管理阶段,但直到理论阶段出现后才被重视(Nursing Theory Think Tank,1979)。

During this stage, arguments arose about whether nursing was merely a chapter of medicine or whether it was part of the biologic, natural, or physical sciences (analogous to the earlier Cartesian concept that biology is simply a chapter of physics). The Cartesian concept was rejected (biology is indeed a distinct and autonomous science), and nursing continued to resist the implication that it was a part of medicine. It became clear to a new breed of nurse leaders—the philosophers and the theorists (or conceptualists, as some referred to them)—that nursing could not be reduced to a single science that inquires into just one aspect of man, just as biology is not reducible to physics. Nursing is complex, necessitating its intrinsic autonomy in content and methods.

在这个阶段,关于护理是否仅仅是医学的一个章节,或者它是生物学,自然科学还是物理科学的一部分(类似于早期的笛卡儿的概念,生物学仅仅是物理学的一个章节)的争论就出现了。笛卡儿的概念被否决了(生物学确实是一个独特的自治科学),护理学继续抵制它是医学一部分的含义。对新一代护士领导者

  • 哲学家和理论家(或者概念主义者,就像他们提到的那些人)而言 - 变得很清楚 - 护理不能简单地归结为一种只涉及人的一个方面的单一科学,就像生物学一样不能简化为物理。护理是复杂的,需要其内容和方法的内在自主性。

The search for conceptual coherence evolved from a preoccupation with syntax to the disciplined and imaginative study of the realities of nursing and the meaning and truths that guide its actions (Table 5-1). Its development from preoccupation with scientific method to speculation and conceptualization is reminiscent of the development of philosophical thought in the 18th and 19th centuries. The 18th century was greatly influenced by Newton and by Bacon, who was in turn influenced by Descartes. The 19th century was dominated by Kant, whose hypothetical, deductive, and metaphysical approach encouraged the speculative nature of science. The speculators in nursing began to construct realities as they saw them, and their imaginative constructs evolved from their philosophical backgrounds and from their educational inclinations.

对概念一致性的追求从对语法的专注发展到对护理现实的严谨和富有想象力的研究,以及指导其行为的意义和真理(表5-1)。从对科学方法的专注到推测和概念化的发展,让人想起18世纪和19世纪哲学思想的发展。18世纪受牛顿和培根的影响很大,而培根又受到笛卡尔的影响。19世纪由康德主宰,其假设的,演绎的和形而上学的方法鼓励科学的投机本质。护理中的投机者开始构建他们看到的现实,他们富有想象力的构造从他们的哲学背景和他们的教育倾向发展而来。

澳门威斯尼斯人娱乐网 1

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BEGINNING STAGE OF THEORY DEVELOPMENT

这种天下观和民族观念贯穿中国历史,成就了中国多元一体的民族分布格局,形成你中有我、我中有你的互嵌态势,奠定了各民族交往、交流、交融的基础。应该说,从人类性的角度看,这种观念可圈可点,符合人类发展的需要。所以,中国民族学应当从先贤哲人的睿智中汲取养分,开创中国民族学的未来。

表5-1 理论发展开始阶段的特征
•  利用外部范式来指导理论
•  关于学科现象的不确定性
•  离散和独立的理论
•  研究,实践和理论之间的分离
•  寻求概念上的一致性
•  用于课程的理论
•  单一范例的目标占上风

It was natural for theory development to be influenced by the paradigms of other disciplines, by the educational background of nurse theorists, and by the philosophical underpinnings of the time. Therefore, we find premises stemming from existentialism, analytical philosophy, and pragmatism guiding the development of those theories, sometimes explicitly and often implicitly. Nurses also adopted concepts and propositions from other paradigms, such as psychoanalysis, development, adaptation, and interaction, as well as from humanism, to guide its assessment and its action. Theories were developed in response to dissatisfaction with isolated findings in research. The emerging theories addressed the nature of the human being in interactions and transactions with the health care system, as well as the processes of problem solving and decision making for assessment and intervention.

理论发展受到其他学科的范式,护士理论家的教育背景以及当时的哲学基础的影响是很自然的。因此,我们发现源于存在主义,分析哲学和实用主义的前提是指导这些理论的发展,有时是明确而且经常隐含的。护士还采用了其他范式的概念和命题,如精神分析,发展,适应,互动以及人文主义,以指导其评估和行动。理论是为了回应对研究中独立的研究结果的不满。新出现的理论论述了人类在与医疗保健系统的交互和交易中的本质。

Although certain theoretical concepts were synthesized from diverse paradigms, most nursing theories, such as subsystems of behavior, role supplementation, therapeutic touch, and selfhelp, were definable and analyzable only from the nursing perspective. Theories offered a beginning agreement on the broad intellectual endeavors and the fundamental explanatory tasks of nursing. This stage offered knowledge of relevant phenomena, but uncertainty continued about the discipline of nursing and its intellectual goals. Just as in nuclear physics—when the first achievement was not one of observation or mathematical calculation but one of intellectual imagination— conceptual schemata evolved before there was any clear recognition of nursing’s empirical scope. In nursing, theories helped the discipline to focus on its concepts and problems.

虽然某些理论概念是从不同的范式综合而来,但只有从护理的角度来看,大多数护理理论(如行为子系统,角色补充,治疗触觉和自助)都是可以界定和分析的。理论为广泛的知识分子努力和护理的基本解释性任务提供了初步协议。这个阶段提供了相关现象的知识,但护理学科及其智力目标仍存在不确定性。就像在核物理学中

  • 当第一个成就不是观察或数学计算之一,而是智力想象 - 概念图式之一在对护理的经验范围有任何明确认识之前就演变了。在护理学方面,理论帮助该学科专注于其概念和问题。

Rogers (1970) offered a conception of nursing that focused on the constant human interaction with the environment. Johnson (1980) developed the notion that a human being—a biologic system—is also an abstract system of behavior centered on innate needs. Levine (1967) and Orem (1971) proposed guidelines for nursing therapeutics that preserve the integrity of the human being, the psychology, the community affiliation—in short—the entire person. Orem (1985) reminded us that the human being is perfectly capable of self-care and should progress toward that goal.

罗杰斯(1970)提出了护理概念,重点关注人与环境的不断交流。约翰逊(1980)发展了一种观念,即人类

  • 生物系统 -

    也是以先天需求为中心的抽象系统。Levine(1967)和Orem(1971)提出了护理疗法的指导方针,以保护人类的完整性,心理学和社区联系

    简言之,就是整个人。Orem(1985)提醒我们人类完全有能力自我照顾,并应该朝着这个目标前进。

Because of the earlier focus on education and professional identity, because the National League for Nursing stipulated a conceptual framework for curricula, and because the truth of a theory had not yet been established using the empirical positivists’ criteria of corroboration, emergent theories were not used to guide practice or research but were instead used to guide teaching. Consequently, scientific energies were dissipated in developing curricula that corresponded to these theories.

由于较早关注教育和职业认同,因为全国护理联盟规定了课程的概念框架,并且由于尚未使用经验实证主义者确证的标准确定理论的真实性,所以没有使用新兴理论指导实践或研究,而是用来指导教学。因此,在制定与这些理论相对应的课程时,科学能量消失了。

Although theories may have influenced practice through students, such influence was not documented in the literature, which focused more on theory in educational programs. As an educator who was a member of a school that used nursing theory (also called a model) as a framework for the curriculum, I experienced first-hand, in the mid-1960s, the conflicts that graduates of the program encountered when they wanted to use a nursing framework, one that they studied and experienced in their educational program, in practice and were unable to do so because of its novelty and its esoteric concepts. Whether the use of nursing models in education rendered nursing care more effective and efficient is a matter left to speculation and was evidenced only in isolated incidents and through experiential narrative analyses that were discounted for their lack of universality and generalization. The graduates of programs based on nursing theories in the early and mid-1960s should be encouraged to write the stories of their experiences with these theoretically based programs and the ways by which their practice was informed or not informed by these programs.

虽然理论可能影响了学生的实践,但这种影响在文献中没有记载,这些文献更多地集中在教育项目理论上。作为一名教育工作者,他曾是一所使用护理理论(也称为模式)作为课程框架的学校的成员,在1960年代中期,我亲身体验了计划毕业生在他们想要的时候遇到的冲突使用护理框架,他们在实践中学习和体验过他们的教育计划,并且由于其新颖性和深奥的概念而无法这样做。护理模式在教育中的使用是否使护理更加有效和有效率是一个留下来进行推测的问题,并且仅在孤立事件中以及通过经验性叙述分析证明,因为它们缺乏普遍性和泛化。应该鼓励60年代中期和60年代中期护理理论课程的毕业生用这些基于理论的课程写出他们经历的故事,并通过这些课程告知或不告知他们的实践。

  The nagging questions continued:

  • What frameworks enhance safety in nursing practice?
  • What are the goals of nursing care?
  • What are the desired outcomes related to nursing care?
  • How do nursing interventions relate to desired outcomes?
  • What are the quality care criteria by which to judge nursing practice?

  唠叨问题仍在继续:

  • 哪些框架可以提高护理实践的安全性?
  • 护理的目标是什么?
  • 与护理有关的理想结果是什么?
  • 护理干预如何与预期结果相关联?
  • 什么是评判护理实践的质量护理标准?

These questions continued to lead to one type of answer: Let us find a guiding paradigm or search for a universal theory with explanatory power for all dimensions of nursing and, once we find this all-encompassing theory, we will be able to answer questions related to the discipline. This approach reminds us that Galileo and Descartes talked of the scientist’s task as that of being able to decipher once and for all the secrets of nature and to arrive at the “one true structure” of the nature of the world. However, that was a Platonic ideal rather than a plain description of the task of scientific research. Later, scientists began to discard this line of pursuit. Physicists and physiologists “now believe that . . . we shall do better in these fields by working our way toward more general concepts progressively, as we go along, rather than insisting on complete generality from the outset” (Toulmin, 1977, p. 387). Toulmin proposed that “human behavior in general represents too broad a domain to be encompassed within a single body of theory” (p. 387). When scientists accept the need for multiple theories, and when they accept the process nature of science, it will be a “sign of maturity rather than defeatism” (p. 387) within the discipline.

这些问题继续导致一种类型的答案:让我们找到一个指导范式,或寻找一个对所有护理维度具有解释力的普遍理论,一旦我们发现这个包罗万象的理论,我们将能够回答相关的问题到纪律。这种方法提醒我们,伽利略和笛卡尔谈到科学家的任务是能够破译大自然的秘密并达到世界本质的“真正结构”。然而,那是柏拉图式的理想,而不是对科学研究任务的明确描述。后来,科学家开始放弃这种追求。物理学家和生理学家“现在相信这一点。。。我们应该在这些领域做得更好,在逐步走向更一般的概念的同时,而不是从一开始就坚持完全的一般性“(Toulmin,1977,p。387)。图尔明提出,“人类的行为总体而言代表了一个太广泛的领域,被包含在一个理论体内”(第387页)。当科学家接受多种理论的需要,并且当他们接受科学的过程本质时,它将成为该学科中“成熟而不是失败主义的标志”(第387页)。

Because nurse scientists searched for one theory for the entire discipline, the task was either overwhelming and too highly abstract (Rogers, 1970), or too simplistic and reductionist (Orem, 1971). The sentiment of practitioners was to question the possibility and usefulness of an allencompassing theory, as evidenced by the meager literature throughout the 1960s and 1970s on nursing practice using nursing theory. The desire for a single conceptual framework to guide the nursing curriculum was carried to nursing practice. Nurse practitioners came to believe that they were being asked to make a choice between theories, and then adhere to that one particular theory. Because none of the theories addressed all aspects of nursing, nurse practitioners avoided nursing theory, ignored it, or refused to use it. A myth was being formed. However, many nurses abandoned the notion of a universal theory to describe and explain nursing phenomena and units of analysis and to guide nursing practice, just as physicists did when they abandoned the 17th-century hope that a universal science of nature could be developed within the framework of fundamental ideas of classical mechanics.

因为护士科学家在整个学科中寻找一种理论,所以这个任务要么是压倒性的,要么太抽象(Rogers,1970),或者过于简单化和简化(Orem,1971)。从业人员的情绪是对整个理论的可能性和有用性提出质疑,正如20世纪60年代和70年代在护理实践中使用护理理论的微薄文献所证明的那样。护理实践需要一个单一的概念框架来指导护理课程。护士从业者开始相信他们被要求在理论之间作出选择,然后坚持这一特定的理论。因为这些理论都没有涉及护理的各个方面,所以护士从业者避免了护理理论,忽视了护理理论,或者拒绝使用护理理论。神话正在形成,然而。

Three themes in nursing that evolved during this stage were acceptance of the complexity of nursing and the inevitability of multiple theories; acceptance of the need to test and corroborate major propositions of differing theories before dismissing any of them; and the idea that concepts or theories remaining in the field, through a cumulative effect, become the basis for the development of a specific perspective. Dualism and pluralism were the norms during the stage of theory. It was also during this stage that nursing developed the boundaries necessary to focus its inquiry and the flexibility necessary to allow expansion through creative endeavor.

护理的三个主题是在这个阶段进化的,接受护理的复杂性和多种理论的必然性; 接受在解散任何理论之前测试和证实不同理论的主要命题的需要; 以及通过累积效应留在现场的概念或理论成为发展具体视角的基础。二元论和多元论是理论阶段的规范。在这一阶段,护理人员开发了必要的边界,以便将重点放在查询和必要的灵活性上,以便通过创造性努力实现扩张。

从民族学学说史角度看,在世界文明古国的文献记载中,就有关于民族学方面的零星知识。这是因为随着民族之间交往与联系的加强、经济生活与科学技术的进步、人们视野的不断扩大,人们开始注意到与“我”不一样的人群,于是,在一些历史著作、地理著作、旅行札记中,记述了所遇见的不同民族的体质特征、居住地域、历史活动、文化习俗及民族之间关系。民族学作为一门科学,在19世纪中叶伴随殖民主义步伐在欧美各国产生和兴起。中国民族学作为一门独立的学科,是从国外引进的。最早介绍这门学科和创办研究机构的,则是蔡元培先生,学界一般认为蔡先生是资产阶级民族学的开创者。所以,国外民族学各流派均在中国形成一定的影响力,产生了一批具有中国特点的民族学研究成果。马克思主义民族学是伴随马克思主义在中国的传播而发展起来的,学界一般认为最早介绍马克思主义民族学的是蔡和森先生,他是最早把《家庭私有制和国家的起源》的思想作为课程在上海大学开设,并形成了《社会进化史》一书。李维汉则是中国马克思主义民族学的开创者,他是中国共产党民族工作和民族研究的第一任负责人。中国共产党全面执政后,中国民族学沿着马克思主义的方向发展,形成了独具特色的中国民族学,正如习近平总书记说的:“可以说,当代中国哲学社会科学是以马克思主义进入我国为起点的,是在马克思主义指导下逐步发展起来的。”[3]

Stage of Philosophy

所以,我们有理由认为,民族学在中国有特定的含义,尽管这种特定的含义在理论上尚未做出全面的阐述。但中国民族学发展的历史表明,其研究范畴、研究对象、研究方法乃至于研究目的,无不具有中国社会和中国文化的特征,民族学鲜明的“中国化”特色已经成为不可否认的事实。

哲学的阶段

As nurses began reflecting on the conceptual aspects of nursing practice, on defining the domain of nursing, and on the most appropriate methods for knowledge development, they turned to philosophical inquiries. The focus during this stage was on raising and answering questions about the nature of nursing knowledge (Carper, 1978; Silva, 1977), the nature of inquiry (Ellis, 1983), and the congruency between the essence of nursing knowledge and research methodologies (Allen, Benner, and Diekelman, 1986). During this stage, philosophy was considered an attempt to understand the philosophical premises underlying nursing theory and research (Sarter, 1987) and an attempt to develop philosophical inquiry as a legitimate approach to knowledge development in nursing (Fry, 1989).

随着护士开始反思护理实践的概念方面,界定护理领域以及最适合知识发展的方法,他们开始思考哲学问题。这一阶段的重点是提出和回答关于护理知识本质的问题(Carper,1978; Silva,1977),探究的性质(Ellis,1983)以及护理知识的本质与研究方法之间的一致性( Allen,Benner和Diekelman,1986)。在这个阶段,哲学被认为是试图理解护理理论和研究的哲学前提(Sarter,1987),并试图发展哲学探究作为护理知识发展的合法方法(Fry,1989)。

This stage influenced profoundly the intellectual discourse in nursing literature. During this stage, epistemological diversity was accepted and the need for ethical, logical, and epistemological inquiries was legitimized, as evidenced in the numerous philosophically based manuscripts accepted for publication (Ellis, 1983).

这一阶段深刻影响了护理文献中的知识分子话语。在这个阶段,认识论的多样性被接受,对道德,逻辑和认识论的探究的需要被合法化,正如接受发表的许多基于哲学的手稿所证明的(Ellis,1983)。

This stage was also marked by a scholarly maturity in the discipline, as its members acknowledged the limitation of appropriate tools to investigate fundamental and practical issues. Assumptions about wholeness of human beings, contextual variables, and holism of care called for congruent investigative tools, and nurse scholars acknowledged the complexity of capturing nursing phenomenon using existing tools (Newman, 1995; Stevenson and Woods, 1986). Accepting limitations while maintaining the reality of the contextuality and complexity of the phenomenon represents a marked scholarly maturity and the potential to focus on the development of appropriate tools.

这个阶段的特点还在于该学科的学术成熟,因为它的成员承认限制适当的工具来调查基本和实际问题。关于人类整体性,情境变量和整体护理的假设要求一致的调查工具,而护士学者承认使用现有工具捕捉护理现象的复杂性(Newman,1995; Stevenson和Woods,1986)。在保持现象的背景性和复杂性的同时接受局限性代表了显着的学术成熟度,并且有可能将重点放在开发适当的工具上。

Earlier during this stage, discussions encompassed the different “ways of knowing” in nursing and espoused a call for going beyond the empirical (Carper, 1978). These epistemological discussions focusing on the structure of knowledge, nature of theory, criteria for analysis, and justification of particular methodologies for knowledge development significantly contributed to the discovery and construction of an identity for the discipline of nursing. As theorists and metatheorists discussed the philosophical bases that shaped nursing knowledge (Allen et al., 1986; Roy, 1995), a new set of questions emerged. These questions reflected more the values and meaning of the knowledge being developed and the consequences of this knowledge on nursing practice, and focused less on the structure and justification of knowledge (Bradshaw, 1995; Silva, Sorrell, and Sorrell, 1995).

在这个阶段早些时候,讨论涵盖了护理中不同的“认知方式”,并提出超越经验的呼吁(Carper,1978)。这些关于知识结构,理论性质,分析标准以及知识发展特定方法的理由的认识论讨论极大地促进了护理学科身份的发现和建构。当理论家和变体论者讨论塑造护理知识的哲学基础时(Allen等,1986; Roy,1995),出现了一组新的问题。这些问题更多地反映了正在开发的知识的价值和意义以及这些知识对护理实践的影响,而更少关注知识的结构和合理性(Bradshaw,1995; Silva,Sorrell)

The emphasis on knowing was complemented by another emphasis on “being.” The being was not limited to the nurse, or to the patient, but to each separately and to both joined in caring interactions (Benner, 1994; Newman, 1995). This philosophical stage, encompassing both components of epistemology and ontology, provided nurses with the legitimacy to ask and answer questions related to values, meanings, and realities using multiple philosophical and theoretical bases.

对知识的强调与对“存在”的另一强调相辅相成。存在并不仅限于护士,也不限于患者,而是分别与每个人以及两者都加入关怀互动(Benner,1994; Newman,1995)。这个涵盖认识论和本体论两个组成部分的哲学阶段为护士提供了使用多重哲学和理论基础来询问和回答与价值,意义和现实相关的问题的合法性。

This philosophical stage persists, overlapping with the following stage of integration. Dialogues about postcolonialism provide the philosophical canons for understanding how domination, power, and resistance influence health care encounters at all different levels, from the individual to society (Kirkham and Anderson, 2002). The postcolonial scholarship in nursing was informed by the discourse in the discipline on race, culture, ethnicity, diversity, and power differential. It refers to and frames the theoretical and empirical work of people’s experiences living under the oppression of colonial control. Using this philosophical stand, we can better understand the effects of diversity in color, religion, sexual preference, ethnicity, and class in shaping responses to health and illness. It allows health care professionals to access the meaning of marginalization.

这个哲学阶段持续存在,与下一个整合阶段重叠。关于后殖民主义的对话提供了理解控制权,权力和抵抗如何影响从个人到社会各个层次的医疗保健遭遇的哲学经验(Kirkham and Anderson,2002)。在种族,文化,种族,多样性和权力差异的学科中,后殖民地护理学奖学金得到了通报。它是指和构架生活在殖民统治压迫下的人们经历的理论和实证工作。利用这一哲学立场,我们可以更好地理解色彩,宗教,性取向,种族和阶级多样性对塑造健康和疾病反应的影响。

Postmodernism, a reaction by philosophers to positivism, translated in nursing into a prevailing sentiment described by Whall as “Let’s get rid of all nursing theory” (Whall, 1993; Whall and Hicks, 2002). Although the context is vital to postmodernism philosophy, universal totality is not possible. Other concepts that characterize postmodernism are relativism, deconstruction, context, atheoretical narratives, and structural influences.

后现代主义,哲学家对实证主义的反应,将护理翻译成Whall描述的“让我们摆脱所有护理理论”(Whall,1993; Whall和Hicks,2002)。虽然背景对后现代哲学至关重要,但是普遍的整体是不可能的。表征后现代主义的其他概念是相对主义,解构主义,语境,无理论叙事和结构影响。

在近代中国的政治实践中,产生于西方的马克思主义经过本土化的处理,形成了马克思主义中国化的理论成果。在社会建设实践方面,成功地组织了抗日民族统一战线,抗击日本侵略者,取得了抗战的胜利;实行民族区域自治,保证了国家的统一和民族的团结;开展了大规模的民族识别工作,确保少数民族同胞的平等权利得以实现。在学术研究方面,蔡元培、吴文藻等领导的专家队伍在1940年代开展民族调查和中国边政研究,形成了一批民族学成果;1950年代全国人民代表大会民族事务委员会组织了少数民族社会历史调查组,以空前的规模开展了各少数民族社会历史调查工作,搜集和整理了大量的调查材料和文献资料,这是中国民族学研究方面的一笔巨大财富,也是发展中国民族学的坚实基础。1980年代国家民族事务委员会组织专家完成了“民族问题五种丛书”,即《中国少数民族简史丛书》《中国少数民族自治地方概况丛书》《中国少数民族社会历史调查丛书》《中国少数民族》和《中国少数民族语言简志丛书》等。此外有关少数民族社会形态的研究也出版了一批专著。面对转型期中国现代化与传统的激烈碰撞,民间文学界的有识之士怀着高度的文化自觉,发起一项大规模的文化遗产保护行动,要将民间口传文化编成一套巨著——“中国民间文学三套集成”,即《中国民间故事集成》《中国歌谣集成》《中国谚语集成》。并在些基础上形成各少数民族的文学史专著和中国少数民族哲学思想史专著。

Stage of Integration

民族学的本土化或者中国化,旨在使中国人类学民族学家首先要解决好中国的问题,贯彻落实新发展理念、加快转变经济发展方式、提高发展质量和效益,更好保障和改善民生、促进社会公平正义。所谓植根于本土研究,就是民族学研究要立足于中国的国情和民族情况以及变化了的时代要求,与时俱进地对中国特色社会主义现代化建设进程中出现的新情况和新课题进行研究。由于国情不同、意识形态和指导思想的不同,中国民族学自然就有自己的特点。因此要在科学借鉴学习国外民族学理论的基础上,建立并不断发展完善中国民族学。在观点、研究方法和研究内容上,构建本土化的中国民族学体系。

整合阶段

This stage has seven universal characteristics, each described in the subsequent text. They should be used to stimulate thinking and discussions about the state of development of our discipline, both nationally and internationally. This stage differs from the next stage in its internal versus external integration with other disciplines. A first characteristic of this stage is the use of substantive dialogues and discussions focused on identifying coherent structures of the discipline of nursing at large and of its specific areas of specialization (Schlotfeldt, 1988). The structures include scientific, theoretical, philosophical, and clinical knowledge that is focused on the nursing domain and its phenomena. These dialogues take place in conferences, think tanks, and themed journal editions devoted to the development of middle-range and situation-specific theories focused on an aspect of nursing.

这个阶段有七个通用特征,每个特征在随后的文本中都有描述。应该用它们来激发对本国学科发展状况的思考和讨论,无论是在国内还是在国际上。这个阶段与内部和外部其他学科整合的下一阶段不同。这一阶段的第一个特点是利用实质性的对话和讨论,侧重于确定整个护理学科及其特定专业领域的一致结构(Schlotfeldt,1988)。这些结构包括专注于护理领域及其现象的科学,理论,哲学和临床知识。这些对话发生在会议,智囊团。

A second characteristic of this stage is the development of educational programs that are organized around substantive areas through the integration of theory, research, and practice— such as environment and health, symptom management, or transitions and health. It is also manifested in the ease by which nursing administrators, clinicians, and educators use theoretical nursing, and in the increasing dialogue among members of the discipline regarding matters related to knowledge, discovery, and development that is focused on and emanates from the domain of nursing.

这一阶段的第二个特点是通过理论,研究和实践的整合(例如环境与健康,症状管理或转型与健康)围绕实质性领域开展教育计划。这也体现在护理管理人员,临床医生和教育工作者使用理论护理的便利性以及学科成员与知识,发现和发展相关事项之间越来越多的对话,这些知识,发现和发展都集中在和发自护理。

A third characteristic of this stage is the evaluation of different aspects of theoretical nursing by members of the discipline—nursing clinicians, teachers, administrators, researchers, and theoreticians. Evaluation is not limited to theory testing; it includes description, analysis, and critiques as well. Each of these processes is important in the development and progress of our discipline because of its diverse philosophical bases.

这一阶段的第三个特点是由学科护理临床医生,教师,管理人员,研究人员和理论家对理论护理的不同方面进行评估。评估不限于理论测试; 它还包括描述,分析和批评。由于其各种哲学基础,这些过程中的每一个对我们学科的发展和进步都很重要。

A fourth characteristic of this stage is the attention that members of the discipline give to the strategies of knowledge development that are congruent with the discipline’s shared assumptions and that consider the conditions of holism, patterning, experience, and meaning (Newman, 1995).

这一阶段的第四个特点是,学科成员对知识发展战略给予的关注与该学科的共同假设一致,并考虑到整体性,模式化,经验和意义的条件(Newman,1995)。

A fifth characteristic is the involvement of members of specialty fields in developing theories that are pertinent to the phenomena of that particular field. This involvement does not preclude similar attention to theories related to phenomena of the domain of nursing at large; for example, theories to describe and intervene in symptoms.

第五个特点是专业领域成员参与发展与特定领域现象相关的理论。这种参与并不排除对与护理领域现象有关的理论的类似关注; 例如,描述和干预症状的理论。

A sixth characteristic is the critical reappraisal of philosophical and theoretical underpinnings that have guided the definitions and conceptualizations of the central concepts of the nursing domain, as well as the methodologies used to generate knowledge. An example of such discourse is the reappraisal of the definition of client in the nursing literature and the congruency of these definitions with domain assumptions (Allen, 1987). Another example is the dialogue about melding different methods to generate knowledge that is more congruent to the tenets of a human science, such as grounded theory, feminist theory, and critical theory (Kushner and Morrow, 2003).

第六个特点是对哲学和理论基础的批判性重新评估,这些基础指导了护理领域中心概念的定义和概念化,以及用于生成知识的方法论。这种话语的一个例子是重新评估护理文献中客户的定义以及这些定义与领域假设的一致性(Allen,1987)。另一个例子是关于融合不同方法以产生更符合人类科学原理的知识的对话,如扎根理论,女权主义理论和批判理论(Kushner and Morrow,2003)。

A seventh characteristic of this stage is the creative ways by which academic institutions in nursing become involved with patient care, either through academically run clinics (nursing clinics), or by developing clinically based faculty positions.

这一阶段的第七个特点是通过学术机构运营诊所(护理诊所)或培养临床教员职位,使护理学术机构参与病人护理的创造性方式。

具体来讲,植根于中国本土化的民族学研究,必须根据变化了的世情和国情。新世纪新阶段,城镇化进程中少数民族农民工市民化问题研究、民族地区农村职业农民研究、少数民族文化传承研究等具有明显时代印记的新课题摆在民族学研究者的面前。由于中国民族学的起步较晚,我们没有古人传统的经验拿来做“母版”;中国国情的不同,我们也不可能照搬国外的经验来做“翻版”。因此,唯有根据时代的变化,结合中国的现实,植根于中国的本土化研究,书写符合时代和国情的“新版”。

Stage of Interdisciplinarity

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